A Brief Guide to the History of the 24 Hrs of Le Mans Race

In 1969, Jackie Ickx pulled on his leather driving gloves and walked across the track to his race car, while the other drivers did the traditional “run and jump” start. He did this in protest, encouraging the other drivers to race with seatbelts fastened. Jackie Ickx would go on to win the 24 hrs of Le Mans in a Ford GT 40. He won this event six times. The traditional start where drivers ran across the track to their cars, was last used in 1969.

24 hrs of Le Mans is steeped in history and prestige. It is the most widely known race in the world. If you are “anybody”, you race at Le Mans… if you win, you are “everybody”.

At Le Mans, race cars are 85% at full throttle for most of the long straights and top speeds of 200 mph are reached until knuckles become white beneath leather driving gloves as the grip on the steering wheel resembles the grip of rubber on the road, as the braking system is tested, bringing the car down to 50 mph, from the Mulsanne straight to the fearsome Porsche curves.

The outcome of each curve determined the fate of the next.

“The Flying Scot” Jim Clark, refused to race at Le Mans. He considered it too dangerous.

The Detroit News said in June 17 1966:- “This racetrack is a cornfield airstrip in the jet age. It was built 50 years ago for cars that went 65 mph. Tomorrow 55 race cars – some of them capable of 225 mph on the straight and all of them over the 130 mph class – will get off at 10am (Detroit time) and it will be a miracle if nobody gets killed. Nobody is fearless. Some of these drivers are scared stiff”.

Back in the days when driving gloves pulled on leather helmets and goggles, an endurance race had a totally different meaning. When Duncan Hamilton won Le Mans in 1953 in a Jaguar C-Type, he was so drunk that when the team offered him coffee during pit-stops, he refused, saying it made his arms twitch, accepting only brandy!

These days Le Mans is a 24 hr sprint through thousands of gear shifts, millions of crankshaft revolutions and constant forces on every component, you drive every lap as a qualifier. This makes the 24 hr of Le Mans the purist all round challenge in motor racing.

Corvette Racing stood atop the podium at the 24 Hours of Le Mans on Sunday June 13-14 2015 as Oliver Gavin, Tommy Milner and Jordan Taylor wrote the final chapter of a storybook comeback that ended with the team winning the GTE Pro category in their No. 64 Chevrolet Corvette C7.R. The trio in their No. 64 Chevrolet Corvette C7.R completed 337 laps for 2,864.50 miles in a frantic battle that eventually saw the Corvette win in class by five laps. Sunday’s victory goes along with Corvette Racing’s wins earlier this year in the 24 At Daytona and Mobil 1 Twelve Hours of Sebring in the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship.

Benjamin Boutell, A True Son of Michigan

A flat-bottomed boat lazed along the river’s bank on a summer day in 1860. An observer could be forgiven for not realizing the lone occupant was a youth who would grow to dominate two Michigan industries, log towing and sugar manufacturing and foster a number of companies in other industries that would add immeasurable wealth to Michigan’s developing economy.

The skiff bobbed in a ceaseless to-and-fro motion, influenced by waves that washed against the bank and then receded in accordance with the movement of steamers and sloops that churned the Saginaw River’s channel. Its skipper, sixteen-year-old Benjamin Boutell, sighed in sleepy contentment. The rocking motion of the river lulled him deeper into slumber as he basked in the sun’s warmth, dreaming of sea adventures in which he was the central figure.

He did not hear the sounds of sawing and hammering, the hailing of ships from shore, and other boisterous dock activity common to Bay City, Michigan in 1860. In ten years, the city’s population had exploded from a mere fifty souls to more than three thousand, with more arriving each day from Canada or Detroit to take jobs in one of fifteen sawmills clustered on the riverbank. Before the lumber drew to a close forty years later, thirty thousand people would call Bay City home and more than one hundred sawmills lined the riverbanks from Bay City to Saginaw, twelve miles distant.

His father, Daniel Boutell, owned one of the hotels situated within hailing distance at the southeast corner of Water and Third streets. Not long before it had been the Sherman House. Situated across from the Detroit Steamboat Company’s landing, it was often the first stop for newcomers to the city. Daniel Boutell had moved his family thirty miles north from Birch Run to take over the hotel, and after extensive renovations hung a new shingle near the entrance. Now it was the Boutell House, a home away from home for Great Lakes sailors who were made to feel more like family guests than hotel patrons because many of the Boutells’ nine children shared the hotel with them

Fascinated by the stories the sailors told, Ben grew to love the river and the great Saginaw Bay, the doorway to the Great Lakes, a doorway he planned to pass through one day. Meanwhile, he earned his way by remaining on call to the Protection Fire Company where he served as first assistant foreman and helped his father at the hotel where he badgered sailors with questions about schooners, sloops, barges, and tugboats. An infectious grin and a sincere interest loosened tongues of sailors who enjoyed Ben’s enthusiasm; they gladly shared accounts of their adventures and knowledge of all things nautical.

Having learned much about the nature of goods that moved from port to port on the Great Lakes, he began to pay special attention to the movement of logs towed by powerful tugboats. The task of moving felled trees to mills situated in one of the state’s principal sawmill towns, Saginaw, Bay City, or Muskegon, was critical to the success of the timber industry. Water transport provided the least costly solution. Logs carved from Michigan’s forests were floated downstream, collected at river mouths, sorted into floating corrals, called “booms,” and towed by tugboats to sawmills that lined the river from Saginaw to Bay City. From forests along Canada’s Georgian Bay shoreline, tugboats towed booms containing thousands of logs across Lake Huron and into the Saginaw Bay for shipment to waiting sawmills.

Tugboat captains faced many perils: sudden storms that would threaten to shatter the delicate lacing of logs that formed the boom, shipboard disasters, exploding boilers, and fires that could leave crews abandoned to chilling water far from rocky shores. The idea of taking the helm of such a craft fired the imagination of the hotelkeeper’s son.

His ambition gained impetus in his twenty-first year when fire destroyed the Boutell House. Dan Boutell fought the blaze until only smoldering rubble remained. His lungs seared by smoke, he declined in health until death claimed him the following year. The family’s livelihood in peril, Ben immediately signed on as a full-time sailor on the steam tug Wave. Within the year, he was the Wave’s mate and in the following year earned papers conferring upon him the responsibilities of a ship’s master.

As Captain Boutell, he assumed command of the Ajax, a steam tug that had lately become the property of the First National Bank of Bay City. The bank had acquired it in the manner banks often acquire assets – via defaulted notes. The twenty-two-year-old novice captain enlisted the aid of an engineer named Samuel Jones, whose salary, like the captain’s, was conditional upon the ship’s revenue, and a cook he addressed with affection as Aunt Kitty and who possessed both an impressive girth and a disposition for adventure. Ben, Jones, and Aunt Kitty ran the tug that fall with Ben handling with equal ease mundane chores such as cutting wood for its boiler and management of the boat’s business. The trio cleared for the owners $6,000 (about $84 thousand in 2009 dollars), giving the young captain a reputation as a can-do ship’s master with a first-rate knowledge of the Great Lakes.

Bold competence won the attention of Captain William Mitchell, master of the tug Union. Mitchell admired the rangy youth with the engaging smile whose energy seemed to expand to meet any challenge. The two became fast friends and business partners, acquiring over time a fleet of tugboats, barges, schooners, and freight haulers that eventually numbered more than fifty. Boutell organized great rafts containing as much as four million board feet of lumber, making him the single greatest hauler of timber of the lumber era. Altogether, log rafting and other towing work for his tugs employed the services of five hundred people. He counted himself among them. Even as his assets and his reputation grew, he stayed on at the helm of one tug or another, five years alone as captain of the Annie Moiles, until finally responsibilities created by his rapidly growing wealth kept him on shore.

Although Ben never left behind the boy who probed the riverbanks aboard a small skiff, the capital he amassed as boat owner and captain on Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and the Georgian Bay would eventually generate additional fortunes. When Ben Boutell, William Mitchell, and future partner, Peter Smith linked themselves to the lumber industry they had tied themselves to a star that would rise but a little distance before flaming out. When the white pine forests melted under the onslaught of axes and saws, the need for Boutell’s tugs disappeared. For a time it was his plan to continue where he had begun, hauling logs from Canada. However, prohibitive duties ended any hope of profiting from Canadian timber. With a sinking heart, Ben, who once transported an average of one hundred million board feet of timber in a season, watched his boats loiter at the docks.

So it was that Captain Benjamin Boutell, in 1897, at the age of fifty-three, found himself wealthy, but unemployed and eager for new opportunities. Though he no longer was the trim youth that inspired legends, he was still affable, easy-going, and, as always, attired in rumpled clothing. A shaggy moustache was all that was remained of a once prominent beard, and though he paid close attention to the weekly sermon at the Madison Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, he peppered his speech with impious phrases that would have brought deep furrows to its minister’s features had they been uttered in his presence. A general portliness, the outcome of too many dinners prepared under the direction of Amelia, his wife of nearly thirty years, robbed him of his once athletic build. Though the body had become rounder, fuller, and less capable of single-handedly managing a schooner’s rigging, the inquisitive youth was still present in eyes that sparkled at the suggestion of adventure.

With the passing of the lumber era, some thirty years after Ben towed his first raft of logs, many who had garnered riches in Michigan’s forests departed, carrying their wealth to distant cities. Ben Boutell stayed put, reinvesting most of his wealth in Michigan. He opened his mind to possibilities in many industries. Knowing little about any of them, insatiable curiosity guided his direction. Soon, he owned major shares of coalmines, shipping companies, machinery shops, cement factories, banks, a telephone company, foundries, and sugar factories. His interests spanned the country from Boston where he owned sea-going barges to Redwood City, California, where he co-founded that state’s first Portland cement factory. He eventually served as an officer or director in thirty-two companies, nine of them in Michigan’s beet sugar industry. He also co-founded the Colorado and Canadian beet sugar industries, presiding over two sugar companies in Colorado and serving on the boards of two Canadian companies that later became the foundation for the Canadian-Dominion Sugar Company. Additionally, he owned large farms where he grew sugarbeets as well as a 4,000-acre ranch in the state’s northern reaches.

His sugar interests alone would have been enough to keep two or three executives busy year around. No single individual in Michigan devoted as much of his wealth and time to the state’s evolving sugarbeet industry as did Captain Benjamin Boutell. He was one of the founders of Michigan’s first beet sugar company, Michigan Sugar Company, where he served as a director and vice-president. He served in similar capacities at the Bay City Sugar Company. He co-founded the Saginaw Sugar Company where he served as treasurer and held a directorship. He was president of the Lansing Sugar Company and treasurer of the Marine City Sugar Company and held directorships in the Mount Clemens, Carrollton, and Menominee sugar companies.

The vast Sugar Trust, an organization that held the country’s supply of sugar in a steel grip for decades did not have his support. As the Trust grew in power, he sold his stock in companies that fell under its control and invested in independent companies, maintaining distance from a form of business organization that was losing favor in America.

Captain Boutell commanded the deck of sailing sloops and boardrooms with equal ease, routinely making investments that impelled the formation of companies employing hundreds. But, when he passed through the portal of his home, he entered a matriarchal society governed by his wife, Amelia, and her identical twin sister, Cornelia.

Amelia Charlotte Duttlinger and her sister were born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1850 or 1851. Tragedy came early to the twins. Their father died when they were three-months old, causing their mother, Catharine, to move to Bay County. There, she operated a hotel with the aid of the twins when they were old enough, two servants, and a bartender. Among the guests in 1869 was Ben Boutell, a dashing young sailor who at twenty-four had already become the stuff of legends and a man of means. That he was a catch surely did not escape the notice of Amelia and Cornelia, or their widowed mother.

Amelia was possessed of a genial personality and good looks and although physically identical to her twin sister, she somehow presented a difference to Ben. Perhaps it was friendlier disposition and an unwary attitude that brought merriment to her eyes and the kind of smile that will linger in a man’s memory. Her auburn hair cascaded long and full across her shoulders, ending in ringlets that bounced with each step she took.

Cornelia seemed, by comparison, more guarded and often critical of the hotel’s guests, many of whom fell short of her rigid standards of dress and deportment. Amelia’s non-stop references to Ben began to sound like wedding bells to Cornelia. She hinted at a budding love affair of her own.

The courtship was brief, shaped by the busy schedule of a Great Lakes seaman. The two were in love and although the term had yet to come into usage, they were soul mates. Each had lost a father at a young age, each had spent formative years bearing adult responsibilities assisting in the operation of a hotel, and each aspired to a life measured in achievement. The marriage occurred on December 22, 1869, after the sea lanes closed for the winter. Ben and Amelia looked forward to a long honeymoon that would end when the Great Lakes thawed in March.

Before the honeymoon was over, however, Cornelia, in great distress, landed on their doorstep to recuperate from a tragic turn of events in her love life. After that, the sisters became inseparable; one would go nowhere without the other. At Amelia’s insistence, Ben bought two of everything, coats, dresses, and hats monogrammed to identify the twin to whom it belonged. In a nod of acceptance of the permanence of Cornelia’s presence in their lives, he named one of his ore-carrying barges “Twin Sisters.” The twin he loved he called “Meil”.

The only distinction between the twins was a small mole on Amelia’s neck behind one ear. Ben, however, possessed a secret method for distinguishing one from the other: Amelia’s features generally depicted contentment while Cornelia’s aspect was sour and irritable. The birth of three sons, Frederick, William, and Bennie, gave special purpose to Amelia’s life while supervision of their development into cultured gentlemen in the coarse riverside lumber town became a special mission for Cornelia. She had surrendered any hope of doing the same for her brother-in-law. His bulk combined with restlessness made every delicate object within his reach vulnerable to breakage; teacups, spectacles, jewelry clasps, and fine furniture seemed to fracture and break in his presence.

The sisters determined that the time had come for the captain to establish a residence sized and embellished in a manner that properly announced the breadth of his life’s achievements. At their behest, he purchased four contiguous lots in Bay City on Fifth and Madison Streets, a block off Center Avenue. Today, Center Avenue reveals a spectacular display of late nineteenth and early twentieth century residential architecture for which it has won a place on the National Register of Historic Places. For Bay City’s prominent citizens in the 1890’s and the next half-century, it was the right place to live. Lumbermen and leaders in beet sugar, coal, shipbuilding, and other industries built stylish homes that reflected their substantial fortunes.

Phillip C. Floeter, a distinguished architect who had a few years earlier designed the Trinity Episcopal Church was engaged to draw up the plans and then build a mansion calculated to dwarf Center Avenue homes in both magnitude and ornamentation.

Floeter imported Italian tile and marble for eleven fireplaces and ordered substantial quantities of mahogany, maple, birch, and pine for both the house and interior paneling. The parlor showed Ben’s love of the Great Lakes. It was in the shape of the bow of a boat, and at the far end stood a floor-to-ceiling mirror flanked on each side by tall, mirrored cabinets. Another tribute to the Great Lakes-bright stones carried from Lake Erie and installed within a front looking gable–attracted the attention of passers-by. Panels covered the interior walls to a height of five feet with the area above them covered first with canvas and then decorated with gold leaf. Lighting fixtures were made of sterling silver.

In addition to storage rooms, the basement contained a kitchen and dining rooms where Ben entertained business associates and friends who preferred to puff on cigars while paying Bacchic tribute to one another, activities prohibited elsewhere on the premises. Two private balconies opened off bedrooms on the second floor, and a first-floor porch ran the full length of two sides of the house. From that vantage point, one could glimpse the river and hear the sigh of sloops passing in the night. The house was painted green with white trim–with marine paint, of course. A large barn, which housed four driving horses and a carriage, stood behind the house.

Boutell was low-keyed. He avoided the limelight often favored by business executives and community leaders, foregoing speeches, the holding of public office or any of the other trappings that accompany success. Compared to those who mounted pulpits or appeared before Bay City’s business and social groups, Benjamin was bashful, almost retiring. With the exception of his mansion, a concession to his wife to whom he refused nothing, he avoided public displays of wealth. He was more likely to give encouragement to children who congregated on his spacious lawn where he built a toboggan slide for them, than to engage in politics and more likely to spend time with his family than at business conventions.

January in the Saginaw Bay region is a cold time. The ice thickens on the bay and the river’s pace slows to a crawl and then finally stops altogether. Each day brings forewarning of colder days to come as winter settles in to hold the region in a cold embrace until spring. It was 1902 and Bay City was no longer imprisoned by frozen waterways five months of each year; railroads now allowed travel to those places where Ben did business. He took frequent advantage of them to travel within the United States and Canada where he attended boards of directors meetings and shareholder meetings or to appraise new investment opportunities.

When he returned from one such excursion in late January 1902, he entered his home where he found Amelia and Cornelia together in the sitting room. Cornelia’s hands were busy knitting a shawl, one of many gifts she and Amelia made throughout the year for family and church members. Amelia’s hands were in her lap, one folded over the other, an unusual posture for Amelia, who, like Ben, was generally busy from dawn to dusk.

Something else captured his attention, sending a cold shiver along his spine. The twins were no longer identical! True, their dresses, as always, were the same, fashionable Edwardian afternoon dresses, black, and in keeping with strait-laced Methodist views, unadorned with jewelry. Each now wore her hair pulled back tightly and secured in a chignon at the back of the head. But, Amelia’s features had changed during the few weeks he had been away, or at any rate, he noticed an accumulation of changes that had escaped his attention when he saw her each day.

She had lost weight, her face was drawn and narrow; her shoulders sloped as if in defeat, and, worst of all, the luster had left her eyes. He swung his head to his left and noticed a pair of kid gloves sitting on the hallstand and droplets of moisture on the floor. Despite their settled appearance, he guessed the two had reached home shortly before him and had hurriedly arranged themselves to deceive him into believing they had been there the daylong. Knitting needles flashed in Cornelia’s busy hands. Her gaze flew first to Amelia, and then to Ben. Amelia made as if to rise to greet her husband but Ben, seeing her distress, rushed across the small space between them and took her in his arms.

He summoned specialists to her side and took her to those who could not visit her at home. She grew worse. Cancer was the sixth cause of death in Michigan in that period, behind tuberculosis, heart disease, pneumonia, cholera, and influenza. Despite Ben’s ferocious efforts to save her, she grew steadily worse.

By Thanksgiving, Ben realized Amelia understood the end was near. He drew his chair close to her bed when with a frail motion she beckoned him to draw close. With a voice too thin to travel more than a few feet, she made known her final wishes. Cornelia, she reminded him, had been a part of her life from the moment of her birth and a part of Ben’s from the moment of his marriage. She implored him to marry Cornelia to protect the family’s wealth which would be threatened with division or total loss in the event Benjamin married another. Marry, Cornelia, she said, and it all stays together where it belongs.

She gripped Ben’s hand with the little strength that remained and asked that he promise her now. In thirty-three years of marriage, Ben had yielded to her every wish; he saw no reason to demur now. He made the promise, then smiled and told her it was an easy promise to make because she would be right as rain by Christmas, at the latest!

Amelia died five days later on November 25, 1902. Ben kept his deathbed vow and married Cornelia fourteen months later on February 11, 1904.

Ben increased the pace of his activities, forming companies, expanding others, and devoting additional time to community projects, such as the founding of the YMCA and the YWCA, serving as a church trustee, and giving freely of his time and money to local needs.

In April 1912, he attended a meeting of the stockholders of Wallaceburg Sugar Company in Wallaceburg, Ontario. At the meeting’s conclusion, he arrived at the railway station in Chatham for the return trip just as the engine was warming. Black smoke billowed from the smokestack. The chugging engine seemed to shout Hurry! Hurry! The conductor, impatient to have a last-second boarder, leaned forward as if to remove the small wooden step used by passengers to board the train. Ben broke into a lope. Just as he grasped the bar that would allow him to swing aboard, the train suddenly lurched forward. He held on with one hand, scrambling to board but lacked the strength to complete the maneuver. He loosened his grip and fell to the platform. At first, he believed himself no more than badly shaken. Upon returning home, he began to feel discomfort, then pain, then agony. Within a short time, he fell into a semi-conscious state from which he drifted into death on October 26, 1912.

When Benjamin Boutell passed into history, Michigan lost a member of a cadre of daring men and women born near the time the state came into existence. He injected vigor and a risk-taking attitude into the frontier state making of himself a pioneer on the Great Lakes and in Michigan’s farm fields and in the fostering of several industrial concerns. When Michigan faced economic distress during the phasing out of the lumber industry, he ignored safer paths and plunged instead, into new industries that expanded economic opportunity in Michigan’s smaller cities at the risk of uncertain financial return for himself while others in his situation carried profits won in Michigan to distant, safer harbors, New York, Cleveland, and Boston. For that alone, he is remembered as a true son of Michigan.

Sources:

Butterfield, George, Bay County Past and Present, Centennial Edition, George Butterfield, Board of Education, Bay City, Michigan ,1957, pages 117, 195 (photo of mansion), 89, 118, and 142.

Gansser, Augustus, History of Bay County, MI and Representative Citizens, Richmond & Arnold, Chicago, IL, 1905, pages 491-2.

Gutleben, Dan, The Sugar Tramp – 1954, Bay Cities Duplicating Co, San Francisco, California, 1954.

Mansfield, J. B. History of the Great Lakes, Vol 1, Freshwater Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972

Evening Press, West Bay City, Bay, MI, Friday, 26 Nov 1880, relating to the death of Benjamin Boutell’s mother.

Cyclopedia of Michigan: Historical and Biographical Synopsis of General History of the State and Biographical Sketches of Men who have, in their various spheres, contributed toward its development., Western Publishing and Engraving Co., New York and Detroit, 227-8, 230-1, Bay City Public Library, Bay, Michigan

History of the Great Lakes with Illus., J. H. Beers & Co., Chicago, 1899. Vol. II, pages 18-22.

INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS: The pre-1975 data are the Consumer Price Index statistics from Historical Statistics of the United States (USGPO, 1975). All data since then are from the annual Statistical Abstracts of the United States. Recorded at http://www.westegg.com/inflation

MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan

Jay Electronica Is Making an Impact in Music

First appearing on the world wide music scene in 2007, Jay Electronica actually has his roots in New Orleans, though he began to make a profound impact on the hip hop industry while living in Detroit. A bit of a wanderer, the Jay Electronica biography must contain chapters in several cities, including Denver, Washington D.C., Baltimore and Philadelphia, prior to his arrival in the Motor City.

Born Timothy Elpadaro Thedford, the 34 year old hip hop emcee is among the latest recruits to Jay-Z’s label Roc Nation, a profound achievement for an up and coming artist who has yet to release a full album. To date,his music has only included singles and mixtapes.

The Jay Electronica mixtapes and singles that have hit the market have mostly made their way to fan via the internet up to this point. He is an unusual artist with a non-traditional approach to marketing, debuting his music online and free of charge, via Twitter, MySpace and other websites.

The first of the singles to be released Act I: Eternal Sunshine (The Pledge), hitting the internet in 2007 and quickly making an impact. The track, which is more than nine minutes in length, is one of the most common hip hop searches performed on the web, with Jay Electronica lyrics for the piece being sought by fans around the world on a daily basis.

It was in Detroit that he made several important industry contacts, including producers Mike “Chav” Chavarria, J Dilla, and Mr. Porter. These hip hop giants are only a few among many to be associated with the artist’s trip to stardom. Several releases over the past few years have featured some of rap’s big names, including P Diddy, Mos Def, Tone, Jay-Z and others.

Jay Electronica Exhibit A was the next big step for the budding star. This single released in 2008 resulted in shock waves across the music scene, with fans making a lot of online noise and many within the hip hop industry waking up and taking notice.

The buzz surrounding the emcee only grew with Jay Electronica Exhibit C hitting the scene in 2009 and gaining a win for “Instant Classic” at MTV2’s 2009 Sucker Free Summit Awards. The track was released via the artist’s MySpace page and offered free to fans, a rarity in the music world.

It is this non-traditional approach to marketing that allowed him to become an overnight sensation, taking the music world by storm. The fans of the emcee await new releases with much excitement and internet queries for downloads continue to be among the most common hip hop related searches.

This unusual music release method has served the emcee well, not only resulting in worldwide recognition but a new label as well. With the Roc Nation label behind him, there’s likely no stopping the young Jay Electronica, who is preparing to release what has been called a “multimedia experience” in 2011. Tracks and videos from the multimedia release began hitting the internet in 2010, bringing even more fans into fold.

How to fly to Hyderabad with low price

Hyderabad – The sixth most populous metropolis is the capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is also known as the “City of Pearls”. If you are planning a trip to Hyderabad, go ahead and book your cheap flight tickets which is almost equal to the train ticket. Now you don’t have to spend long tiring time on the train. Instead of long train travel you can opt for comfortable and short flight options.

The city has several tourist attractions that invite thousands of visitors each year. It is also known as the IT hub because of the large companies located in the city. Not only in the IT sector, Hyderabad is also a big hub of pharmaceutical companies like Matrix Laboratories, Dr. Reddy’s Lab etc. People often travel across the city for business convenience. Because of the IT hub, people provide employment to thousands of job seekers because they come back to the city to stay

There are different flights from Hyderabad Airport to Rajiv Gandhi International Airport every day. It meets the needs of millions of passengers. The main flights from the airport are Indian Airlines, JetLite, Indigo, SpiceJet etc. Charminar in Bir, Birla Temple, Hussain Sagar etc. Shopping freaks in the city to buy pearls, bangles, jewelry, silverware, etc. show the culture and ethnicity of the past in these cities.

If you haven’t seen the Glory of the City, pack your bags and book a flight. There are direct flights from different cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Cochin, Bangalore, Goa, Udaipur etc. To book a flight you just need to check any travel site. Various airlines operate their cheap flights and they offer huge discounts on air tickets. The best way to get a cheap plane ticket is to plan your vacation or trip. Somehow if you are not able to plan, they also need not worry, call the airline’s helpdesk and search for tickets, they offer discounts on last minute deals if there are empty seats on the plane.

People who travel regularly can get additional discounts from the airlines. You just have to be more discriminating with the help you render toward other people. If you book a flight ticket through a travel agent, ask him for more discounts as they can buy bulk tickets from the airlines and give you a lot of discounts.

Upgrade to Business Class with SriLankan Airlines flight tickets

The national carrier of the South Asian country Sri Lanka – SriLankan Airlines – is one of the best choice among those looking for international airline tickets. Based in the rugged cities of Colombo and Matala, the airline has a prominent presence throughout Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Carrier, a member of the OneWorld Global Aviation Alliance, is one of the largest international passenger airlines in South Asia. The carrier operates domestic and international flights to more than 80 destinations across a network of more than 35 countries. By maintaining the size of a fleet of more than 20 models, the airline strives to give its flyers maximum connectivity.

The last few years have seen a significant increase in ticket bookings for SriLankan Airlines. A recent survey revealed that one of the main reasons behind this rise is the rich business class of the career. Almost all the medium and long distance models of the airline have posh travel cabins, which are full of modern conveniences, elegant decor and sophisticated amenities. Not only are corporate travelers attracted to fly in these cabins, retirees looking for free luxury also enjoy the special treatment provided by the airlines in this pet class.

Sure Business Class

The Sri Lankan flagship airline operates the models, which provide plast business cabins. These elite travel classes have comfortable flat beds, the latest in-flight entertainment facilities and fantastic culinary delights that satisfy even the most discerning gourmets. What adds to the comfort of passengers flying in this cabin is the enduring Asian hospitality provided by the trainers trained on board. This airline provides extra miles to ensure an enjoyable flight experience for its elite travelers by providing complimentary services such as lounge access and priority check-in at the airport.

Easy upgrade

Modern amenities on international routes and high-end facilities make long-distance travel hackle-free and comfortable. Any traveler who has already booked a ticket to a specific place and later feels like upgrading their class from economy to business can do so in a matter of minutes. The carrier offers a value-added service known as Upgrade, which allows flyers to enjoy the comfort of elite cabins even after being placed in economy class. All they have to do is make an online bid after buying the air ticket. After registering the bid online, the Flushers get a chance to upgrade to Posh Cabin.

How to apply

Any Sri Lankan airline ticket holder who has bookings in the economy cabin of an international airline can place an online bid. Individuals can register for bids up to about 72 hours before the scheduled departure of the flight. People just need to login to a top tour website, search the Sri Lankan upgrade web page and fill out a short e-form. The bid is accepted and they will have to pay the discount amount if confirmation is received via SMS or email within 48 to 72 hours of the scheduled departure time. In this situation, when no upgrade is available, the previous ticket is valid and no charge is charged from the bidders.

Best day through book and travel

Have you ever wondered when the best time to buy a plane ticket and which day to travel is the most economical? Knowing the answers to these questions can save you money and valuable time.

Best time to book airfare

Many travelers do not realize that the best time to book an air ticket is when airlines announce their sales. Tuesday happens weekly, it’s the best day to book. And to be more precise 3:00 East Standard Time, so sync your watch if you’re hoping for a great fare!

Best time frame from the shop

Delays in travel or booking are not a good thing. Many passengers mistakenly think that if they wait, the fare will come down. This is not necessarily the case and as a result, individuals spend more than they bargain for.

Depending on whether you are traveling domestically or internationally, if you are hoping for the best airline price, you should keep in mind your time frame:

> Domestic Rental (US): Purchase within three months to 30 days of departure.

> International rent: Purchased between 5-1 / 2 months of departure and 1-1 / 2 months.

Cheap days and times to fly

Folks don’t involve too much strategy here, because common sense tells us anything, the rules of supply and demand. A good rule of thumb is that the less convenient travel as a school and work schedule, the less likely it is to cost.

So, as far as the time of day and day of the week goes, the general rule for flying cheap time is:

> Day: Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday

> Times: When people don’t usually want to fly, such as red-eyed and overnight flights and dawn and dinner times.

The most expensive days to fly

Friday and Sunday are, of course, usually the most convenient days for most leisure travelers.

Great strategy when booking Airfare

Here’s a little helpful hint. At the time of airfare and booking, buy one passenger at a time. The reason is that airlines will look for cheaper flights when searching. If you keep more than one input and the list shows a ticket at a lower fare and many higher fares, the system will charge more when looking for more than one ticket.

Another recommendation for finding the best airfare is to use price warnings with online booking services like TripAdvisor, Expedia and Faircomper, as they will send you an email once fares are reduced.

Economic travel here!

H Marshall Gardiner – Hand-Colored Photographs

H. Marshall Gardiner (1884-1942) was born on September 18, 1884 into a photographic family led by his father, W.H. Gardiner. Apparently some sources list his first name as “Harry“, other sources list him as “Henry“. Born in Windsor, Ontario, Canada his family immigrated to the United States circa 1890. Once the family was settled W.H. Gardiner opened two photographic studios, one in Detroit, Michigan during the winter months and a second at Mackinac Island, Michigan during the more tourist-oriented summer months. Recognizing the potential of Florida’s rapidly growing tourist trade, around 1894-95 H. Marshall Gardiner moved with his family from Detroit to Daytona, Florida which proved much more accommodating to the family’s photographic business during the colder winter months.

H. Marshall Gardiner learned many of his photographic techniques from his father prior to going out on his own at a relatively early age. Whereas his father generally used wet collodian negatives, technology had advanced to where H. Marshall Gardiner was able to use gelatin dry plates in his earlier years. And in the later years he was able to utilize the less expensive and much more convenient roll film.

Another very important lesson Gardiner learned from his father was that one of the keys to operating a successful photographic business was to set up shop in a tourist resort. Early in his career Gardiner traveled to Bermuda. There he shot a series of beautiful Bermuda scenes that he hand-colored and sold to the Bermuda tourist trade. Sold there over a considerable period of time, these Bermuda scenes provided a nice revenue stream as the years went on. They proved so popular that we have even seen some with pre-printed (vs. hand-signed) signatures suggesting a significant-enough sales volume to justify the considerable expense of pre-printing mats.

Around 1910 he first traveled to the island of Nantucket, just off the coastline of Massachusetts’s Cape Cod. He was around 26 at the time and the year-round population of Nantucket was just over 2500, not nearly enough to sustain a photographic business for the entire year. On Nantucket Gardiner opened a joint Photography and Art Supplies Store. Working as Nantucket’s exclusive agent for Eastman Kodak, his business expanded to include the island’s only photo-finishing service. However, with such a small year-round population, even the addition of a Gift Shop to compliment the hand-painted photographs, general portrait & photographic services, and art supplies couldn’t sustain him on Nantucket year round.

So during the winter months he helped with the family’s photographic businesses in Daytona and Mackinac Island. And upon his father’s death in 1935, Gardiner took over the family business in Daytona on a full-time basis.

H. Marshall Gardiner was married twice. His first marriage was to a Nantucket “Macy” who was a descendant of one of the founding families of Nantucket. She died after eight years of marriage and he then married Bertha Coffin Chase, a descendant of another Nantucket founding family.

H. Marshall Gardiner’s hand-painted photographs are very similar to those by Wallace Nutting and the other leading New England photographers. That is, most are matted, usually on white mat board having a platemark indentation around the image, signed “H. Marshall Gardiner” lower right beneath the image, and titled lower left beneath the image. And most are framed in thinner frames, also in the style of Wallace Nutting.

From the perspective of a hand-colored photography collector H. Marshall Gardiner produced works in three primary locations…NantucketFlorida…and Bermuda. And the desirability of Gardiner’s work with collectors generally ranks in that order.

H. Marshall Gardiner’s Nantucket hand-painted photographs are undoubtedly his most desirable works. Money generally lives on Nantucket and both full-time and part-time residents, as well as visitors and tourists, love to collect Gardiner’s hand-painted Nantucket photographs. Scenes with buildings and people are often the most desirable. Seascapes and location-specific Exterior scenes are also highly collectible. His more generic Exterior scenes are probably the least collectible of his various Nantucket views. Although for a short period of time around 2000-2002 prices were topping $1,000 for the rarest Nantucket scenes in the best condition, the high-end market has softened somewhat and today the better Gardiner Nantucket scenes will more commonly bring in the $250-$500 range. Apparently the Gardiner Nantucket market on eBay was driven by only a small handful of collectors and, once they either acquired a desired title or dropped out of the market, top prices started to fall back into line. More common Nantucket titles and those in damaged condition can bring considerably less.

Gardiner’s Florida hand-painted photographs are becoming increasing collectible to both hand-painted photography collectors as well as general-line Florida collectors. Most of Gardiner’s Florida scenes are more generic (palms, coastlines, hanging moss, streams, sand, etc.). Location-specific pictures will generally bring stronger prices than will the more generic Florida scenes and you can typically expect Gardiner’s Florida hand-colored photos to bring in the $100-$250 range.

And his Bermuda scenes, although the least collectible of the three primary Gardiner categories, are still highly prized by collectors. However, since we have seen fewer “Bermuda” collectors than “Florida” or “Nantucket” collectors, prices for Bermuda scenes will generally run $75-$150 at our Auctions.

Gardiner’s postcards are also widely collected. Unlike his hand-painted photographs which can command a premium price today, his Nantucket postcards are much easier to locate and are much more affordable. And if you like the photography of H. Marshall Gardiner, you will be able to find considerably more views in postcards than in hand-colored photographs. Most of Gardiner’s postcards were produced by the Detroit Publishing Company using their “Phostint” patented printing process. Although some B&W postcards may be found, his most popular and numerous postcards are color. Generally H. Marshall Gardiner postcards will bring $2.50-$10.00 each although certain ones may bring somewhat higher prices.

H. Marshall Gardiner died on December 4, 1942 and is buried on his beloved Nantucket

RECOMMENDED READING: For further information on H. Marshall Gardiner we would refer you to a book by his daughter, Geraldine Gardiner Salisbury titled H. Marshall Gardiner’s Nantucket Postcards: 1910-1940.

The difference between a cheap international airfare vs. a cheap domestic search

Although U.S. domestic air fares are much more volatile (as prices change more frequently) the price difference between major travel destinations such as Orbitz, Travellokti, Expedia and Airlines sites is often no more than 10-20%. Domestic aircraft sellers fall into about 2 categories: (1) airlines and (2) online travel agencies. There are a few niche players but they serve a very small market. So, when shopping for a domestic aircraft, “when to buy” is usually more important than “where to buy”.

The opposite is true when negotiating an international airfare. “When to buy” is still important (e.g. don’t wait until the last minute) but “where to buy” is much more important. This is because air fares in Europe, Asia, Africa and South and Central America are a bit less volatile (often unchanged) but the price difference between different sellers can sometimes be 50% or more. There are several reasons for this, but the two main ones are (1) the type of rent that is paid and (2) the number of players on the field.

Type of rent

There are basically 2 types of international fares without getting too technical; Published and unpublished. 97% of the lease rent is published in the domestic market (day or take). A published rent you can refer to as retail rent. The airline makes fares and rules related to these fares and then publishes the information through a clearing house called Etipo (airline tariff publishing company). ATPO then distributes the fare to the worldwide distribution system. Online and offline travel agencies alternately recover these published fares through one or more of these systems. Everyone has access to rent. An undisclosed rent (also called a discussed rent) is still being disclosed through ATPICO but the “Rent Rules” section is an indicator of what allows the seller to access and sell this rent. This is basically a private rental. Another difference is that the published fares have to be sold at a fixed price (no mark-up or mark-down) when an individual fare can be identified. That’s why you see online and offline agencies add a service charge anywhere from ড 5 to 50 50 on a published fare ticket. With the fare in question, the airlines will receive a fixed amount and the seller will be allowed to mark (add his margin) with that fare. So, any seller can negotiate a $ 300 fare from New York to London Airline X and then mark it up and sell it for 5 345. Another visible difference between the discussed and published fares is that you will not see the price you paid for the ticket on many (almost all) fares. Instead you will see either much higher rent or just tax information. Published fares show exactly what you paid for the ticket (excluding any service charges). As a general rule, discussed fare tickets are often cheaper than published fare tickets (there are instances when an airline may have a “fire sale” that lowers the fare level in question) and therefore “where” is more important than “when”. When it comes to buying international airfare.

Travelers

International airline sellers fall into the following main categories:

(1) Major airlines

(2) Charter Airlines

(3) Online travel agency

(4) Offline travel agency

(5) Global consolidators that sell to the public

()) Global consolidator that does not sell to the public

()) Ethnic consolidator or destination specialist

(8) Student Travel Consolidator

(9) Tour operator

Major Airlines

We are all familiar with American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Lufthansa, British Airways, KLM and many more These they offer airfares through their own websites and many other vendors listed above. They can offer web specials on their own website. They do not charge any service fee.

Charter Airlines

These national airlines are much more common in Europe than in the United States. A charter is basically when a tour operator “rents” or “charters” an airline to fly a passenger from the airport to the destination airport of their fare departure. There are a number of airlines that provide services from / to the United States with roots in the certification business. They regularly offer / to / year or seasonal services at a few selected U.S. airports in a few single countries. These are FAA approved and must comply with all airline safety rules and regulations. What sets them apart is their business model that usually allows them to sell seats cheaper than major ones. Some of these alternative airlines are LTU, Condor, Flyglobspan or Martiniere. They usually do not charge a service fee.

Online travel agency

The players in this category are Travelokti, Orbitz, Secitikets, Expedia, Priceline, Hotwire and more. They sell published and unpublished airfares. They charge a service fee. They habitually try to sell you other travel items such as hotel accommodation, car rentals, attractive tickets and / or travel insurance. If you are going abroad to buy a package on vacation (where the seller will bundle an air component with one or more plots of land) can be an option and save you money. In future articles I will cover the advantages and disadvantages of packages.

Offline travel agency

Also referred to as Brick and Mortar Travel Agencies, these are traditional travel agencies that allow you to enter, sit down and book your trip. Depending on the size and target market they can also double as an ethnic integration or destination specialist. They have access to rent direct consolidators that are not offered directly to the general public. Brick and mortar agencies almost always charge a service fee.

Global consolidators who sell directly to the public

Many times it is the travel agencies that have decided to “cut off the intermediaries” and go directly to the airlines to discuss their own airfare. This allows them to resell at a lower price without losing their margin. To get decent private rent, the global consolidator would have to sell the agency for 100 100 million annually. Most of the tickets in question are sold without any service fee. If a consolidator sells a published rental, they regularly add a service fee.

Global consolidators who do not sell directly to the public

In the days leading up to online internet travel, very few companies will act as their own integrators. Instead they worked through the middleman (consolidator) who contracts with the airlines. A consolidator will negotiate the same $ 300 as mentioned above, add its margin and then sell it to a retailer. The retail agent would then add its margin and sell it to the public. With the size of the Internet, agencies could reach a much wider audience and therefore acquired the strategy of direct negotiations with airlines. Nevertheless, there are still many companies, offline and online, that fly Middleman Consulate. Mere volume consolidators can offer any airline these fares can still be negotiated after several mark-ups.

Ethnic consolidator or destination specialist

These are probably the least known (by the general public) sources for cheap airline tickets. These are quite difficult to find. The United States is a nation of immigrants and ethnic integrators have historically served their former patriotic or immigrant community. These were and still are a cheap source for flights back home. Unlike global consolidators that can sell more than 250 250 million a year, these ethnic outlets can turn out to be just over -5 2-5 million a year but most of it can go to 1 or 2 carriers. These are highly specialized and have long lasting relationships with their preferred careers. These long-term, reliable relationships mean that some ethnic mom and pop operations are able to secure 20-30% lower airfares than online mega agencies. Destination experts like ethnic integration in terms of size and style. They have become true experts in a country or region and have built relationships. The difference is that they often target foreign independent travelers (FITs). As I mentioned, these few outlets can provide in-flight bargaining chips that are often hard to beat but the challenge is finding them. Google and Yahoo and no other search engine often find them.

Student Travel Consolidator

As the name implies these are agencies that target students (and in some cases faculties). As a global consolidator, they go to airlines and discuss special discounts or personal fares. The difference is that under the agreement with the airlines, they are only allowed to sell to fan students (and faculty). Often students have to be admitted to a recognized college or university and high school students are not eligible. The same goes for the faculty. Some companies are better than others at ensuring that the ticket they bought is actually a student.

Tour operator

Tour operators are entities that sell vacation packages such as all-inclusive etc. Etc. They deal with airlines, hotels, ground operators and package them together, identify them and then sell them to the public as a product. On occasion they will sell only airfare (at rock bottom prices) to fill the vacant seats on the aircraft. Since they have a fixed price that they have to pay the pilot, any vacancy is an opportunity. The best chance of getting one of these cheap seats is usually in the Caribbean or Mexico.

Plenty of sources for international airfare. Finding the right one at the right time can make all the difference to whether you get a good hire or a big deal. Frequent (lucky) time spent signing a domestic airfare agreement results in knowing where to look for a great international deal.

Five tips for traveling by train in Europe

Research the various rail passes available

If you plan to visit many countries, it may be wise to invest in an Israeli pass or to consider a non-EU citizen who is considered a Ural pass. An interrail pass will make your train journey much easier. However, if you are on a tighter budget, individual tickets may cost less (especially if you are traveling east of Germany). Consider your budget and do some research before booking your rail pass.

Try to reserve your seat

Train tickets and seat reservations are two different things. A ticket allows you to board the train and a reservation guarantees a seat on your particular train. Before you travel make sure you understand that your train will not need, offer or accept seat reservations.

If possible, try to reserve your seat, especially if you are traveling to Uber-popular countries such as France, Italy or Spain. For most trains, you don’t need to reserve your seat, but getting on the train and hoping for the best is not a good idea. If someone else has booked it you may be asked to get out of your seat midway. By saving your space, you can choose whether you want an isle or window seat. You can enjoy the ride sitting in the back knowing that you will not be hindered from moving.

Keep your belongings safe

European train travel is known as one of the safest ways to travel. But it is important for pickpockets to keep an eye on trains that stop, especially in big cities. Do not leave your luggage at risk on the train or at the station. On night trains, if you intend to sleep, make sure to secure the luggage in the rack with a small bicycle lock. To get peace of mind, wear a waist pack under your clothes to keep your passport, phone and any important documents safe from any potential thief.

More or less – Tips for traveling by train in Europe

Going from country to country or city to city is a fun and exciting journey however, if you carry a heavy burden the trip can become tedious. Pack the essentials and leave no items or products behind.

Depending on the train you are traveling in, there may be limited storage space on the seat racks and on the shelves at the end of the vehicle. Instead of carrying large and heavy suitcases, a quality light weight backpack is another way to lighten your load.

Pack the right supplies for the trip

Travel to Europe provides a travel-sensitive perspective; But it’s a good idea to bring a few basic items to help you spend time, especially if you start the journey in more than 2 hours. Read a book, watch a movie on your tablet, write in your travel journal or start a conversation with another passenger and you will be at your next destination before you know it.

Most trains include a restaurant, cafe carriages or snack cart that sells sandwiches, soft drinks and more. However, if you are on a strict travel budget or have specific dietary requirements, it is wise to bring some snacks with you.

How to book cheap air tickets in India?

India is incredible. The travel experience in India is full of mindful hospitality, its exotic food, bright colors and natural beauty mind India is actually complete and full in the travel package. You may end up with the passion of traveling from one part of India to another but the destinations will never end. There are countless destinations to visit and explore in India. Now you want to know about flights to India.

Traveling to India is really exciting but it will not be expensive at all. How to get cheap plane tickets in India? Travel, food and accommodation can become cheap and affordable for all travelers from North America and Europe, the thing is they just need to plan their proper itinerary so that they can get maximum savings from their travel program.

If you maintain your comfort according to the tips given below, you can save a lot on your flights to India without accommodation and food. Isn’t that great?

* Keep yourself up to date with reporters by reading promotional airline tickets for well-established airlines.

* If you also need a great hotel for your stay, you can choose the complete package in India where you will be able to save your money from every aspect and also get cheap plane tickets for India.

* If you are flexible in planning your trip to India, you are more likely to get cheap flights to India.

* It is advisable to plan your vacation with some airlines so that you are able to save your hard earned money.

* To get the most suitable airline ticket for you, you must be involved in searching online for various travel websites. Another option is to book a plane ticket to India in advance to get a cheap plane ticket.

You will find several airlines that will definitely give you great gift vouchers and discounts if you travel on their airlines. The package is stunning and gives customers every support they need.

It is possible to get cheap flights to India from all the major airlines of the nation including Paramount Airway, Jet Airways, JetLite, Kingfisher Red, Indigo and Air India. The purpose of offering cheap airline tickets is to make it easier for airlines to carry tickets.