Pressure Washing; How to Bid Concrete Cleaning Jobs

Remember the cleaning business is all about time ratio to money. You want to be making at least a $ 1 a minute when doing concrete work at a minimum and aim for $ 100 to $ 200 per hour if you can get it. If you are not achieving this income level then you work too slowly or you did not bid correctly on the accounts you are taking. You need to have a work order form. This form should have an area for time it took to do the job, how many people were on the job, gas to get to the site and mileage to get to the site. If you need a sheet like this the trainers we believe the best program to create this in the new Microsoft Word, it has some incredible new features which make the formatting so easy you might think of yourself as a graphic designer.

For your pressure wand you need to use a green tip for steam and a yellow or 15-degree tip for breaking up dirt from an area or pushing the dirty water from an area so you can see what you are doing. You need to have an extra one hundred feet of pressure hose with your work truck or trailer mounted set up. This extra hose needs to be available when you are at a job site where there are many contract workers and space is limited. More then two hundred feet of hose will be required to get to places like the back yards of houses. You will also need two hundred feet of garden hose.

More often than not you will have a job that requires more than 200 gallons of water or multiple jobs on a single day that will use more than 200 gallons of water. You have to remember that hard water is not really all that important when doing concrete. Soft water is good for doing vehicles to help prevent hard water spots but is not necessary for concrete. Plus, it is not worth the time to refill your water tank just do concrete. If you have a regular concrete cleaning customer you may just want to tell them you will use their water and you will decrease their bill by about three to five dollars a month to help cover their water bill.

You need a push broom or hand brooms to help move lose dirt before starting the job. On larger jobs you may want to consider a blower, the type that is used for lawns. This will help move more dirt faster. You need a floor squeegee for helping push water out if you are in a garage or other area where water should not stand very long. The half-moon shaped floor squeegee works best. Plus it helps identify an area that you may need to go over again or chemically treat to get the stain out. A flat-ended shovel is important to have if you have concrete that has spilled on the flat slab already or small rocks that have accumulated on the concrete. If you spray the concrete when these little rocks are still on there and you hit them just right; they may catch a near window and cause damage. You could break up the excess concrete with the pressure wand but once again this is wasting time and money that you could be making at your next job.

A very important item to have is some type of cover plate. This plate will be placed in front of doorways or floorboards when you are using the waves to get around the edges of the concrete. A lot of the competition does not make this additional effort when doing a job. There is nothing worse for a customer then when you flood their business with excess water or cause an alarm to go off and a security guard has to run out which they might be billed additionally for. I hope these tips help you. Think about them.

Brief History of Ford

Henry Ford founded Ford, currently the third largest carmaker in the world, with the Dodge Brothers in 1903. While Henry Ford has been building motor vehicles before this, 1903 is the year when he, supported by twelve investors, established the famous company.

Ford's first cars were named chronologically with letters: the model A was introduced in 1903 for example. In 1904 Ford introduced the world famous T Model that was to become a symbol of the American motorcar industry.

In 1907 Ford launched its current Blue Oval Trademark but it was not until 1928 that a Model A had the first version of the familiar Ford script.

Henry Ford had witnessed a huge success with his vehicles especially with the T Model and by the early 1910's he expanded overseas, with production facilities in France, Denmark and Germany, England and Austria.

When the First World War started, Ford was producing half of the cars being sold in the US and almost half of all cars being produced in England. During the war, Ford produced many of its cars for the military.

In 1922, Ford acquired Lincoln Motor Company in the desire of expanding its market share as Ford wanted to enter the luxurious car market.

By 1941, Ford owned the largest assembly plant in the world and during the World War II Ford produced not only your standard military vehicles, but also B-24 Liberator bombers and tanks.

Henry Ford died in 1947 and by that time Ford was a reputed world carmaker. It is said that over seven million people paid their final respects at his funeral.

Post WWII Ford was a company that developed and evolved very fast. Many famous models were produced in the 1950s and the 1960s, such as the Thunderbird (1955), the F-1 truck (1948) and the Mustang (1964). Ford also continued to develop and implement the latest technologies in their cars and they had become one of the most important carmakers in the world during the Cold War.

During that time Ford Motor Company continued to expand overseas, looking for other possible investments. In 1979 they bought a quarter of the Japanese carmaker Mazda, in 1987 Ford bought Aston Martin and in 1989 Ford acquired Jaguar. In 1999 Ford acquired Volvo and Land Rover in 2000.

In 2003 Ford Motor Company celebrated its 100th birthday and it introduced a series of special commemorative cars, such as the new Ford Mustang. In the recent years Ford has faced some financial problems (the company reported losses of over $ 12 billion for the 2006 fiscal year) that led to the selling of some of the brands from the Ford group: Aston Martin, Jaguar and Land Rover.

As gas prices in the United States continue to soar the Ford Motor Company will need to keep pace with current market trends and foreign manufacturers know for smaller cars and better fuel economy to stay a viable and profitable business.

Crime in America – The Most Dangerous Cities and States

According to the most recently compiled crime reports and analyzed statistics (based on 2008 records), the three most dangerous cities in America are not particularly surprising.

New Orleans, Louisiana. There is little wonder that this city takes the number one most-dangerous spot, considering the social upheaval that ensued after Hurricane Katrina. Still in the lengthy throws of recovery, it's illegally that crime stats will drop any time soon in this devastated urban environment.

Detroit, Michigan. Poverty has overwhelmed Detroit following the closure of so many auto industry plants and other related businesses that were for so long the center of the area's economy. Desperation has a way of making people turn on each other. Violent crime, especially rape, armed robbery and assaults were through the roof in '08.

Gary, Indiana. Gary's drop to the number three spot is something of an accomplishment. They held the infamous number one spot for several years running. Burglary has always been high in this Indiana town, but rape statistics are especially ridiculous. I'd surmise that it would be unwince for any woman to walk down the streets of Gary without a loaded gun, a body guard, locked chastity belt and a pack of wolf hybrids.

The rest of the top ten most dangerous cities are: North Charleston South Carolina, Richmond California, Birmingham Alabama, Flint Michigan, Oakland California – which has been in the top three on numerous occasions, St.. Louis Missouri, and Camden New Jersey.

The three most unsafe states include Louisiana at the top of the list. While New Orleans was named the most dangerous city in the US, there are other Louisiana locales that do not beckon visitors with any promise of security. No doubt Louisiana tourism will not be on the rise anytime soon.

Nevada comes in second to Louisiana, though a distant second. Some of the smaller out of the way towns are not too seedy, but Las Vegas is always a hotbed of crime. Reno has its fair share of trouble as well. The state, with legal gambling and prostitution, is pretty much begging for an unsavory culture.

South Carolina takes the number three spot of the most dangerous states in the country, due to its very high number of reported attacks and car thefts. Other recorded crimes, however, are relatively low in comparison to other states in the top ten, which include; New Mexico, Florida, Tennessee, Alaska, Arizona, Michigan and Maryland.

No matter where you live, whether it's one of the most at-risk cities or a small, quiet town, it's always important to be aware of who and what is around you. Use common sense when going out (is it really necessary to be outside at 1:00 in the morning?) And when at home, always lock up your doors and windows.

Installing a reliable home security system can help keep you safe, and monitoring services elevate your personal protection even further. Crime can happen anywhere, anytime. Preparation and awareness can be key weapons to keep you from becoming a victim.

Steal These Documentary and Series Ideas – Please!

So many ideas and so little time. So I thought I'd share some ideas for free in the hopes that someone in the universe will stumble upon them and turn them into wonderful, fun, insightful shows, series and documentaries. Or at least, get some good brainstorming going. Did I mention that they are absolutely free?

Signs of the Messiah – This would be a documentary following people who are looking for signs that the Messiah is coming in whatever religion in which they believe. I have a friend who studies rap music and hard rock lyrics because he believes that the second coming of Jesus will be announced through music. This made me wonder how many other people out there are sign seekers in such unusual and interesting ways.

The Science Behind Rock Concerts – This documentary would follow one popular music group as they prepare for a concert. As they prepare, the film would delve into how our ears hear music, how our brains process it, how instruments make music, how we are capable to sing, why humans respond to music, how microphones pick up music and how speakers broadcast music.

Extreme Collectors – I was amazed to learn that there are people who spend thousands upon thousands of dollars each year to collect sneakers! What other crazy collectors are out there? I'm sure some of these collectors as colorful characters.

6 Degrees of Separation – On each episode, contestants draw a name of a celebrity out of a big name drum. Then they have 48 hours to get in touch with that celebrity. The less steps / contacts it takes to find the celebrity, the more points they get. They also get more points for face to face meetings. The show could be hosted by someone who sort of knows Kevin Bacon. The

Ultimate Couch Potato Life – this lifestyle series would be hosted by a good looking guy with a bit of a beer belly. On each episode, he would give tips on how to maximize the coach potato experience. The tips could range from comfort food recipes to entertaining on game night. There could even be a "tools and technology" segment that explores the many uses of TiVo and such things as chairs with built in refrigerators.

From Celeb to Politician – What makes celebrities like Ronald Reagan, Jesse Ventura and Arnold Schwarzenegger decided to turn in the glamor for a politician's life? And what makes them so good at it?

A Week In The Life of A Reenactor – Reenactors tend to be pretty colorful characters. They often dedicate all of their spare time to researching, practicing and preparing for reenactments in an effort to make them as real and as accurate as possible.

Greatest Fictional Characters – and their impact on society. These characters can be from books, TV, movies or cartoons. They can be dogs, doctors, lovers, villains, heros or even cars. For example, what effects have Cliff Huxtable, Gregory House and Trapper John had on our collective American psyches? This could be done as a top-10 count down show.

Mommy Bloggers – this is a phenomenon that has reached Wall Street. Many blogs started by moms about family, child rearing and motherhood now have the backing of major sponsorship. Who are these mommy bloggers and how can you cash in?

International Holidays in the US – I'd love to see how Hindus in Berkely are celebrating Diwali and how the West Indians in DC go all out for the Carnival in Brooklyn. There are lots of international holidays being celebrated in our own back yards. You do not even need a passport.

If you've any of these ideas on air already, that only proves that they are good. Hey, now that I've written these ideas out, some of them look kinda good. Hurry up and producer them before I do! If you have any ideas that you'd like someone else to producer, please share.

Turkey Trot Trivia Quiz

1. Most folks know that Americans celebrate a Thanksgiving Day, but they aren’t alone. What event is celebrated in The Virgin Islands on Oct. 25?

A. A Thanksgiving Day to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season

B. A Thanksgiving Day to celebrate the end of the harvest season

C. A Thanksgiving Day to mark the beginning of the harvest season

D. There is no such event except in The QuizQueen’s imagination.

A. A Thanksgiving Day to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season

QQ: The Virgin Islands observe a Thanksgiving Day on Oct. 25 to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season. That is certainly something to celebrate alright!

2. Where did turkeys come from?

A. Turkey

B. Europe

C. South America

D. Antarctica

C. South America

QQ: Turkeys weren’t introduced into Europe from the Spanish colonies in South America until 1523. However, by 1524, turkeys, imported from South America, were eaten at the court of King Henry VIII of England.

3. Thanksgiving is also a legal holiday in Canada. When does it fall?

A. Second Monday in October

B. Second Thursday in October

C. Second Monday in November

D. Second Thursday in November

A. Second Monday in October

QQ: Because Canada is north of the United States, its harvest comes earlier in the year. Accordingly, the Thanksgiving holiday falls earlier in Canada than in the United States. The Canadian Parliament set aside Nov. 6 for annual Thanksgiving observances in 1879. In 1957 the date was shifted to an even earlier day, to the second Monday in October.

4. Who originally domesticated the turkey?

A. The Turks

B. The Mexicans

C. The Chinese

D. The Vulcans

B. The Mexicans

QQ: The turkey was originally domesticated in Mexico. The ocellated turkey is native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and adjacent Guatemala and Belize.

5. What month is National Turkey Lovers’ Month?

A. May

B. June

C. November

D. December

B. June

QQ: Hah, bet lots of people got that one wrong! June is National Turkey Lovers’ Month, after all, June is the month for lovers, isn’t it?

6. Benjamin Franklin, who proposed the turkey as the official United States’ bird, was dismayed when the bald eagle was chosen over the turkey. Why?

A. He loved to eat turkey and wanted everyone to love it, too

B. He thought the turkey much more respectable

C. He said the bald eagle had a bad moral character

D. The turkey was a true native of America

E. All are true

F. None are true

G. A, B, and C are true

H. B, C, and D are true

H. B, C, and D are true

QQ: He may have loved to eat turkey, but after the selection was made, Franklin wrote to his daughter, referring to the eagle’s “bad moral character,” saying, “I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen as the representative of our country! The turkey is a much more respectable bird, and withal a true original native of America.”

7. What Thanksgiving Day image can be traced back to ancient harvest festivals?

A. Candle

B. Cornucopia

C. Pilgrim hat

D. Turkey

B. Cornucopia

QQ: The cornucopia (a horn-shaped basket overflowing with fruits and vegetables) is a typical emblem of Thanksgiving abundance that dates to ancient harvest festivals. Many of the images commonly associated with Thanksgiving are derived from much older traditions of celebrating the autumn harvest.

8. Can turkeys fly?

A. Only the domestic ones

B. Only the wild ones

C. All turkeys can fly

D. No turkeys can fly

B. Only the wild ones

QQ: Domesticated turkeys cannot fly. Wild turkeys can fly for short distances up to 55 miles per hour and can run 20 miles per hour.

9. Although the U.S. is tops when it comes to turkey consumption (who knows if it is Thanksgiving that puts us over the top), what country is a close second?

A. France

B. Italy

C. Germany

D. UK

A. France

QQ: This was a tough question, because according to the USDA the French, the Italians, the Germans, and the British all follow US consumption of turkey (in that order).

10. Although often linked to Christmas, Kwanzaa is actually more closely tied with which holiday?

A. St. Patrick’s Day

B. Halloween

C. Thanksgiving

D. Valentine’s Day

C. Thanksgiving

QQ: Come on, even if you didn’t know that Kwanzaa was Swahili for “first fruits” this is a Thanksgiving-theme quiz! Kwanzaa has its roots in the ancient African first-fruit harvest celebrations from which it takes its name. However, its modern history begins in 1966 when it was developed by African American scholar and activist Maulana Karenga.

11. When Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin sat down to eat their first meal on the moon, their foil food packets contained what?

A. Roasted turkey and all of the trimmings

B. Spaghetti and meatballs

C. Hot dogs and beans

D. Peanut butter and jelly

A. Roasted turkey and all of the trimmings

QQ: If you got this wrong, refer to the title of the quiz!

12. What Jewish holiday could be associated with Thanksgiving?

A. Shabuoth

B. Passover

C. Hanukah

D. Yom Kippur

A. Shabuoth

QQ: Shabuoth or Shavuoth, also Feast of Weeks or Pentecost, is celebrated in the late spring during the Hebrew month of Sivan, seven weeks after Passover. In biblical times the festival was a thanksgiving for the grain harvest. Later tradition associates the holiday with the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai.

13. Who gobbles in the turkey family?

A. Everyone

B. Only adult turkeys, not chicks

C. Only tom turkeys

D. Only hen turkeys

C. Only tom turkeys

QQ: Only tom turkeys gobble. Hen turkeys make a clicking noise. Click. Click.

14. The custom of watching football games on Thanksgiving Day also evolved during the early decades of the 20th century. Many Americans digest their holiday meal while watching football games on television. Traditionally, which two National Football League (NFL) teams host games on Thanksgiving Day?

A. Detroit Lions and Dallas Cowboys

B. Carolina Panthers and Miami Dolphins

C. Jacksonville Jaguars and Cincinnati Bengals

D. Houston Oilers and Cleveland Browns

A. Detroit Lions and Dallas Cowboys

QQ: High viewership of these holiday games has made football an American Thanksgiving tradition. Yet another retail strike against America! And for your football trivia, The Carolina Panthers, Jacksonville Jaguars, and Houston Oilers could not be part of any long-standing tradition as the Panthers and Jaguars were part of the 1995 expansion of the NFL and the Oilers moved to Tennessee in 1997 to become the Titans.

15. What is the turkey trot?

A. A ragtime dance

B. The gait of a horse

C. A card game

D. The way a turkey runs

A. A ragtime dance

QQ: The turkey trot ragtime dance is characterized by a springy walk with the feet well apart and a swinging up-and-down movement of the shoulders.

Introducing the Pontiac G8

There is a new and exciting car coming out of Detroit in the near future …… the Pontiac G8. The G8 debuted at the 2007 Chicago Auto Show to rave reviews. Many have been begging GM to come out with a car based on the Holden Commodore, and we finally got our wish. The G8 was developed in Australia by GM subsidiary, Holden. They have been selling their Commodore, which the G8 will share a chassis with, since July of 2006.

The show car, which debuted at Chicago, is essentially a Holden Commodore SS-V with a Pontiac front clip and badges. The show car is a slightly modified version of what the model model will be. The performance suspension and 20 "wheels, according to Pontiac, are show car exclusives.

The G8 is jumping right into the 4 door performance sedan market, joining the Dodge Charger as the two largest domestic performance sedans on the market. The G8 will be available in two versions, the base model equipped with the 3.6L V6, rated at 261 horsepower, and the GT sporting a 6.0L V8, which is rated at 362 horsepower. All cars will feature a five speed automatic transmission with a manual shift mode.

Features for the G8 include four wheel independent suspension, four wheel disc brakes with ABS and traction control, 18 "wheels (19" wheels are part of an optional sport package), OnStar, power adjustable front seats, fog lamps, chrome exhaust tips, rear deck spoiler, and XM will be available. On the inside, cloth seats will be standard, with leather available as an option. The GT will also feature a special two-tone leather package.

The G8 will replace the Grand Prix and serve as a four door brother of the last GTO. With the Solstice GXP, G6 GXP, Torrent GXP, and now the G8, Pontiac is showing a commitment to returning to its performance roots. Not since the muscle cars days has there been such a push for high power cars, whether coupes or sedans. GM's partnership with Holden has produced cutting edge performance vehicles, including the last GTO and it looks like things are just starting to heat up.

S80 and C30, Volvo's Entrants to Auto Shows

Despite the fact that we are still in the early parts of 2006, there had already been many auto shows not only in the United States but in other countries as well that featured the most captivating and the most promising production vehicles. These auto shows also became the venue for automobile manufacturers to show off their concept vehicles.

Volvo has made sure that their company would not be left out when it came to this large showcase of exemplary vehicles. During the Geneva Auto Show, the company's entry was the 2007 Volvo S80 which is already a production vehicle. The 2007 Volvo S80 is a luxury vehicle and it basically competes with the likes of the Audi A6, the Acura RL, the BMW 5 series, and the Lexus ES 350. Although it is already in production, this vehicle would start to be on sale come the first quarter of next year.

The Detroit Auto Show became the venue for Volvo Cars to show off the Volvo C30 which was introduced as a concept vehicle. However, the company already is producing this vehicle so much so that it would be available for sale at around the same time as the Volvo S80. Most likely, this vehicle would be competing with the Mini Cooper, the Scion xB, the Golf GTI, and the Audi A3. It roams around looking like a modern sport hatchback.

The safety features of the 2007 Volvo S80 is still like the typical ones that Volvo equips with vehicles. It is an elegant vehicle yet the company claims that it would not be elitist. Although this vehicle has already been in production since 1999, come 2007, the new version would come with minor upgrades like its new front fascia that appears to have more curves, a sleeker appearance, as well as a sportier aura.

The Volvo C30 is already set to be introduced as a production vehicle during the Paris Motor Show. This vehicle was primarily designed so as to attract and bring in the young and active people from urban areas. The safety features are still just right for Volvo standards however this new one comes with a sporty touch yet provides a much more fashionable appeal.

Spirit of Boston Edison Historic District in Detroit, Michigan

Since 1958, the City of Detroit has its famous Spirit of Detroit icon, cast by the accused sculptor Marshall Fredericks, but the Boston-Edison Historic District neighborhood has its own iconic family: the Frederick Marshall Family, who, since 1983, has made Boston -Edison their home.

Frederick (Rick) and Evarn Marshall moved to their home on Longfellow in April, 1983. At the time, Evarn was expecting their first child, Frederick III, and looking forward to being a stay-at-home mom. The house they bought was, we would say, a "fixer-upper". It had been totally gutted, and had to be completely refurbished and remodeled inside and out. According to Evarn, they did not have the money to hire contractors, so they decided to tackle every single project themselves. Evarn loves the uniqueness of the homes in the neighborhood; and reminds everyone that "they do not make houses like these any more"!

Rick and Evarn took the Lord as their partner and general contractor, so to say, bought books, attended classes, went to home improvement stores and completed one project after another. Except for learning how to paint when she was a child (especially doing the "non-fun stuff – the trim"), Evarn had little experience in home repair, and Rick had even less. But historically, the couple, along with their children, completely remade their home. Even the boys, Frederick and Aaron, along with their dad, even learned how to replace plumbing fixtures and build cement porches and driveways. Just this August, Rick completed a cement porch in the back of the house with a built-in seat!

Rick and Evarn love Boston-Edison so much, they have encouraged all of their children to purchase their own homes here. So far, Frederick and Aaron live on Chicago and Boston Boulevards, and daughter Jill Thomas and her husband Luther are looking for their dream home in Boston-Edison. We are so proud and excited to have generations of the Frederick Marshall Family here; and we are looking forward to other families casting their roots right here in our wonderful Boston-Edison Historic District Neighborhood.

The Shame of the Nation: A Summary, and Analysis

Jonathan Kosol's interest for teaching profession and activism was triggered after the killing of three young civil rights activists in Mississippi in June of 1964 while he was working as a grade four public school intern intern in Boston, Massachusetts. His experience as a teacher in one of Boston's urban segregated schools cave him an insight to the sight of children of minorities, which motivated him to address the issue of segregation, and inequalities that exist in public schools that has continued to plague the nation till the present day.

School Segregation
According to him, he visited approximately 60 schools in 30 districts in 11 different states. Most of his visits were in the South Bronx of New York City, Los Angeles – California, Chicago, Detroit – Michigan, Ohio, Seattle – Washington, Boston – Massachusetts and Milwaukee. In the schools he visited, he observes that the conditions have grown worse for inner-city children in the 15 years since federal courts began dismanting the landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. He notes that the number of white students in urban public schools have increasingly declined with the shifting pattern of white middle class families from urban to suburban communities since the 1960's (white flight). He talks of the irony of school population in relation to the leaders of integration, which the schools bear their names, like Thurgood Marshal Elementary School in Seattle Washington with 95% minority students. According to him, the overwhelming majority of students in urban public schools in the United States are students of color. In Detroit for example, 95% of students in public school are either black or Hispanic. In Chicago, the figure is 87%, Washington is 94% while New York is 75%. He pointed out the cynicism in the "small school initiative" like the Center School in Seattle that was perceived as a "tie-breaker" of school segregation that "attracted 83% white and 6% black enrollment when it opened in 2001, in a city where whites are only 40% of high school students district-wide ". (p. 277). In comparing the Center School with African / American Academy in another section of the city where black students make up 93% and whites make up 3% of the enrolment, the location of the center school and its curriculum offers many opportunities to students. "The Center school which is sited in a cultural complex known as the Seattle Center, offers an impressive academic program to prepare its graduations for college while also provides a wide array of opportunities for students to participate in science projects, theatrical productions, music, ballet , and other cultural activities ", (p.278) while such opportunities are lacking in the African-American Academy. "The school in a sense represents a local version of 'your own Liberia' … the African American Academy is using a highly direct method of instruction that, in some respects resembled the approach used in Success for All" (p. 279) . He argues that after decades of persistent struggle against school segregation by educators and civil right activists, social and economic policies have continued to aid the growing trend of school segregation.

Inequities
Kozol laments the lack of basic resources and amenities in the urban public schools – restrooms, clean classroom, hallways; appropriate laboratory supplies, up-to-date books in good condition and classroom supplies and material. According to him, this lack of resources moves some teachers to spend between $ 500 – $ 1000 of their own money every academic year to purchase the supplies and materials in the case of Winton Place elementary school in Ohio. He argues the overcrowding of students in a classroom. For instance in Chicago, it's not uncommon to see classrooms with as many as 54 students coupled with the fact that most of the teachers are unqualified.

Kozol also points out the issue of lack of pre-school opportunities for a large number of students because the federally funded head start programs were denied them. He also shows the disparity for money spent on a student, and its effect on state testing. In the case of New York State, the average spending on a student in the city is $ 8,000 while that of the suburb is $ 18,000. Also in New York, the inequities in expenditure between 2002 and 2003 are: NYC $ 11,627, Nassau County $ 22,311, Great Neck $ 19,705. The salitudes of teachers in poor and wealthy school districts follow the same pattern. While the average salary of school teachers in poor communities is $ 43,00, the salary of teachers in the suburb like Rye, Manhurst and Scarsdale in New York ranges from $ 74,00 to $ 81,000. Even the issue of fundraising is a factor in the disparities among schools in poor and wealthy communities. Whereas schools in wealthy neighborhoods could raise up to $ 200,000, schools in poor districts could only raise $ 4,000.

Adaptive Strategy Curriculum
Kozol questions the ratione behind the scripted programs that have been adapted into the minority school system. "Authentic Writing", "Active Listening", "Rubric for Filing", "Accountable Talk", "Zero Noise" etc., according to teachers account, they are meant to follow the scripted lesson to bring formality and structure to the learning environment which raises the anxiety levels of both students and teachers. The high standard language and higher expectations with little support, has taken over the moral and ethical values ‚Äč‚Äčthat use to be the integral part of the curriculum. "used by most schools has become part of the daily rituals and practices that are fashioned to boost students moral. Students from the under-performing schools are encouraged to memorize phrases like" I am smart "," I am confident "to raise their self -confidence and academic performance. This according to him has formed the framework used to identifying the causes of the under-achievement of students of color. encouraged to use "strict Skinnerian controls" to manage and teach students in their classrooms, and which job it is to pump some "added-value" into undervalued children. (p. 285)

In close semblance to the above is the business-like outlook "work related themes" that is being created in these schools, "market driven classes", "sign contract", "take ownership of their learning", "pencil manager", " classroom manager "," building managers "," learning managers "etc. This kind of corporate outlook portrays students as "assets," "investments," 'productive units,' or 'team player' according to Kozol.The knowledge and skills, which the students acquire, are seen as "commodities" and "products" to be consumed in the "educational market place." Kozol argues that educational administration should in no way be equated with factory production line, and advices that "teachers and principals should not permit the beautiful profession they have chosen to be redefined by those who know far less than them about the hearts of children. "(p. 299)

High stick testing
The issue of teaching for testing has replaced the essence of teaching for learning in public schools. According to Kozol, "In some schools, standardized testing begins in the kindergarden. Courses that are not included in the high stake testing are often not taught any more or they are completely removed from their school curriculum, like arts and music. , naptime and / or recess has been reduced or taken out completely to allow more time for the preparation of state standardized test. Even teachers meetings are geared towards the discussion of effective strategies to prepare students for quarterly assessment tests or reviewing state and district standards. Teachers are encouraged to attend workshops and conferences in regards to the testing to acquire more knowledge on how to integrate their teachings to the state testing standards.

In the bid of all the educational superiority imposed on the students, they are also tracked and labeled. Labeling the children from level one (lowest) to level five (highest) places them into categories supposedly for further instructions. Instead of being given adequate attention regarding their labels, it is used as a description of their academic stance. "She's gone down to level two," "She's a level one." The issue of academic tracking and labeling in these schools poses a huge obstacle in creating equity and democracy in a learning environment. According to Kozol, learning is taught as "a possession" not something one "engages" in. Students are encouraged to select "a career path" during their freshman year, so as to tailor their course work. Neverheless, there is little encouragement on the career path of college education. For example, the case of Mireya who attends Fremont High in Los Angeles, while she aspires for a college education, she is rather placed into voluntary classes – sewing and hairdressing. She tells Kozol "I hoped for something else." "Why is it that students who do not need what we need get so much more? And we who need it so much more get so much less?" She questioned.

In view of all these structured teaching strategies imposed on the urban public schools by the administrative body, both teachers and students exhibit robotic behaviors in order to achieve the set goals of the planners. Teachers who tend to veer out on these stipulations face disciplinary actions and could possibly lose their jobs. Students who do not adhere to the rules and follow the prescribed pattern face the risk of not passing their tests. Overall, there is loss of creativity and ingenuity in the classroom. Kozol points out that it would rather take a reflection than a miracle to set the schools on the right track again. He argues that desperate schools can not be turned around by the arrival of a charismatic, tough talking principal. "There are hundreds of principals in our urban schools who are authentic heroes … but there is a difference between recognizing the achievements of able school officials and marketing of individuals as saviors of persistently unequal system".

Ray of Hope
After questioning and critiquing the re-segregation of urban public schools in America, Kozol pointed out a few schools, teachers, principals, administrators and human rights activists he had met in the course of his study that gives hope to the possibility of school integration. According to him, "Virtually all the truly human elements of teacher motivation have been locked out of the market misperceptions that control so much of education policy today. But when we go to the schools in which these market ideologies have been valiantly resisted, we are reminded of a set of satisfactions and devotions that are very different from the ones that dominate the present discourse about urban education. " (p. 297) … "These are the schools I call" the treasured places. "They always remind us of the possible." (p. 300).

He acknowledges the definitions made in most school districts since after visits over three years. At PS 65, a new curriculum that focuses on the need of the children had been introduced. The hand-held timers and scripted lesson plans have been taken out, and actual writings of children are displayed in the walls. He also recalls the efforts of some school districts in Milwaukee and Louisville where school leaders have promoted desegregation across district lines.

Kozol sees every hope in teachers and administrators like Louis Bedrock (which he dedicates this book to), Miss Rosa the retired principal of PS 30, Fern Cruz the new principal of PS 65 and others for their dedication and persistence in fighting for the right course of education for the minority. He also acknowledges the contribution of black activists like Congressman Lewis who have voiced out publicly and written books that expose the persistence of segregation in America.

In his epilogue, he wrote "A segregated education in America is unacceptable". "Integration is, it still remains, the goal worth fighting for" (p. 316).

The Shame of the Nation: An Analysis

I find this book very revealing, intriguing, insightful, and at the same time one sided and opinionated, but in summary, it is very informative. This book is an opportunity of a good ethnographic researcher who not only puts energy in his work but also has passion in the subjects of his work – the students. The empirical analysis of this book rests in the inequality that is salient in the American society. Race, class, culture, gender and economic status which have formed the measuring tape of individuals' worth in the American society have become the bedrock of the administrative bodies in the formulation of policies. Policies like education, housing, income and property taxes, transportation etc. have been so carefully formulated to include and exclude some members of the society. These policies of course favor the dominant group, which are whites and disfavor the targeted group which is mostly blacks and Hispanic.

It takes a critical mind to understand the game in the policies. Taking for instance the funding of community urban schools from property taxes from the community, one has to first, think of the nature of the properties in such a community, who owns them, what shape, and of what value they are. If the majorities of those properties are individually owned and are of good shape and value, the expectation is that they will yield good tax for the community. On the other hand, when the government owns such properties, little can be realized in property tax in such a community, and that in turn affects the sourcing of the school. This is the game of politics in perpetuating inequality as we have seen in this book.

Who would expect that the administration that tends to speak in favor of equal education has a hand in making it unequal? That the promulgations of "No Child Left Behind" and "Equal Opportunity for All" are only frivolities? Who would imagine that some teachers and education administrators could be so robotic that they question their ingenuity and creativity in the face of manipulation, except for a revealing book like this? In addition, how can anyone comprehend the damage that has been done by these administrative inconsistencies over the years?

There is an insight into the social, economic, and cultural capital powers of the society in this book. Parents who are more informed, educated, with good jobs and better means have more say in the education of their children than those with little or no education and means. They surf for good schools for their children, organize themselves as the parent bodies of the school, and intervene in matters that are not favorable to their children, for instance, they raise money to employ more teachers and advocate for less number of children in a class. They come up with one voice to exclude others from integrating into their children's schools and sometimes take out their children from a school that are getting more minority enrolment as the case may be. They are less dependent and more challenging to the school administration and government than the parents with fewer capitals. The parents of the minority who have fewer capitals, complain and mostly mostly on the school administration and government to make the necessary adjustments in their children's schools. The system fosters posterity of family status.

In this atmosphere of stratification, while the dominant group acts up to maintain its status, and the targeted, subordinate poor group agitates its position, the children suffer the struggle. A wider gap is created between the rich and the poor. While the children of the dominant group perceive themselves as fortunately, they are less 'educated' than the poor children who see it all. They face lesser chances of integrating and facing realities of multiracial society and as such are less likely to accommodate differences in future. On the other hand, the minority poor children get more skeptical and cynical when matters of equity arise. In the case of the little Bronx boy who wrote Kozol, "You have all the things and we do not have all the things," and the high school student from California who told his classmate "You're a ghetto, so you sew. " The disparities in their educational experiences raise innumerable questions in their heads, which only the government can comprehend in that while their parents may be 'guilty' of not possessing the where-withal, the students are innocent. Kozol's study goes to predict that going by the present pace in educational strategy in America, inequality will persist; integration will be minimized, and desegregation will not only be a nightmare in schools but would be nipped in the bud in the society in future if they are not addressed now. He goes to say, "This nation needs to be a family, and a family sets down for its dinner at a table, and we all deserve a place together at that table."

Having enumerated the classical work of Kozol in diagnosing the blatant, ugly passion inequities in our public urban schools that plagues America today, I need to point out the one-sided, opinionated view of the issue. In a situation like this, no one person can be all right and the other all wrong, there needs to be a balance of 'a little to right and a little to the left'. In the entire book, Kozol addresses the structural approach to educational inequality that sees the school and government administration as the factor that has perpetuated the problem, little speculation if any, of the cultural approach to the discourse with parents and students contribution. Although there were a few reasons of all white public schools, there was little emphasis on their interactions, though one might argue that they have all the necessary amenities available for them in comparison to the minor schools that have little amenities.

I call this one sided and opinionated in the sense that the subjects of the matter visa vie poor minority parents and their children, are not addressed as potential input to the problem and as such potential contributor factors to the solution. If in a capitalist society like America where opportunity is laid down for everyone for grabs, the 'majority' of the minority group keeps complaining of marginalization of resources, there is a problem somewhere permanently imposed limits. The problem could be in conflict of comfort in dependence or reliability on false sense of security. The core word is value. As regards to the parents, many of them depend on the system and can not walk their ways out to independence and instill that value of independence in their children. A culture of poverty has evolved among this minority group and they seem very comfortable in such a zone. So who makes the extra money for their children's comfort?

The children as well due to lack of role models from their parents, do not deem it fit to strive and conquer the inevitable, they embrace violence and they keep on finger pointing like their parents instead of realizing that education not agitation is their only access to high status in the society. I believe that a focus on re-orienting the children of the minority group in exploring educational opportunities no matter the limitations that they face would help in getting them back on the right track. On the other hand, if they should be contented, respectful, curtail violence, and love themselves, that would attract more empathy to them from whatever administration that is in place and they can be in their own schools without any white and feel good just the same. Understandably, the structural approach often times shape the cultural, which is unstable based on economic resources that yields self-support and autonomy.

Vick-Tory for the Eagles Will Ignite Controversy

The Kevin Kolb Era got off to a rocky start in Philadelphia last week when the Eagles' newly-minted starter suffered a conversation against the Green Bay Packers. Michael Vick played ably in relief, turning a potential blowout into a respectable contest, but the Eagles lost, 27-20.

Vick's solid play-and his intimation that he could have thrown off the victory had he been on the field for a full four quarters-sparked a week-long debate about the starting QB position in Philly. Should Vick get the start against the Detroit Lions, or should Kolb?

Although head coach Andy Reid was adamant in his support for Kolb, the debate was put to rest, for the moment, when Kolb was unable to practice late in the week. Concussions are unpredictable, and no one knows for sure when Kolb will stop exhibiting symptoms.

Meanwhile, by attrition, Michael Vick got his first start since 2006 against the Lions, and appeared determined to make the most of it.

Vick was workmanlike, if not spectacular, as he led the Eagles to a 35-32 victory over Detroit, bringing them back from a 17-7 first-half deficit. The fleet-footed lefty passer thread for nearly 300 yards and two scores.

He managed the game well, taking what the defensive gave him and making plays with his legs when he needed to. He thread some nice passes from the pocket, and while he did force a couple of balls into coverage, he did not turn the ball over. The debate will be alive and well this week. Expect Vick to say the right things about simply being happy to help the team. Expect Reid to declare, once again, that Kolb will be the starter when he is ready to go.

Truth be told, though, Andy Reid has some serious thinking to do. Vick looked very sharp, but it is obviously difficult to accurately judge a player's proficiency based on a performance against the Lions. Lots of quarterbacks look good against the Lions. But Vick also ran the offensive nicely against the Packers, a decent defensive team with legitimate Super Bowl aspirations.

On the other hand, the Eagles sent Donovan McNabb to the Redskins so they could see what they had in Kolb, and they still do not know. In limited action last week, Kolb looked overwhelmed at times. But just as Reid can not yet make a definitive judgment about Vick, neither can he pronounce Kolb unfit because of a shaky, abbreviated outing.

This is not a "Super Bowl or Bust" year for the Philadelphia Eagles. It is more of a rebuilding / relating year. They are looking to develop cohesion on one of the NFL's youngest teams (only six Eagles are over 30 years old). If they can win a few games along the way, that's a bonus. That's why, if Kevin Kolb is good to go next week against the Jacksonville Jaguars, he will almost certainly start.

Andy Reid has been notoriously stubborn when it comes to his starting quarterback, keeping McNabb under center when fans, pundits and "experts" were calling for him to be benched. He has made up his mind, and he rarely changes it.

For his part, Vick is basically auditioning for a starting quarterback job somewhere else in the league, because it is not going to happen for him in Philadelphia. There is always a market for an above-average starting quarterback. The Arizona Cardinals could use one right now, as could the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns. Matt Cassel is not setting the world on fire in Kansas City, and the Minnesota Vikings do not know who their starter will be in 2011 (provided there is any football at all in 2011).

There are plenty of opportunities for Michael Vick, and constantly his gratitude to the Eagles for giving him another chance to play when no other team would touch him, he knows his best shot to start will be with another team. Expect him to take the shot.